Monday, January 20, 2020

Women and Obstetrics: The Loss of Childbirth to Male Physicians Essay

Women and Obstetrics: The Loss of Childbirth to Male Physicians "Woman" is often referred to as a diseased state of the male norm. Medical testing is done on men, with men as the norm. Women's bodies are diseased and dysfunctional. Female processes are not normal occurrences in the female body. They are deviant processes, needing male consultation and male solutions. This medicalization of women's bodies occurred during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as medicine became professionalized and men came to be in control of women's bodies and their processes. During the fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth and part of the eighteenth century, midwives oversaw women's medical needs. Childbirth and diseases of the reproductive organs were the domain of midwives. Books on midwifery taught midwives to diagnose problems, to suggest treatments, and to oversee birth. As men sought to professionalize medicine and to further their control they began to become involved in midwifery and developed obstetrics and gynecology. The shift from midwife to obstetrician and gynecologist occurred from the early eighteenth through the nineteenth centuries. Relinquishing control of their territory was not something midwives did voluntarily, rather it happened as a result of questions of women's place and innovations in technology. Men's access to education and to technology provided them with an advantage over female midwives. Female midwives and women in general were denied medical education. They were not exposed, nor allowed to use certain technologies. In order for midwives to keep their job, they were forbidden from practicing medicine. Using technology was practicing medicine; midwives could not use technology to ease labor or to diagnose... ...d (New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 1986) Leavitt, Judith Walzer, ed., Women and Health in America (Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1984) Mitchinson, Wendy, "Hysteria and Insanity in Women: A Nineteenth Century Canadian Perspective" Journal of Canadian Studies 21 (1988): 1199-208 Morantz-Sanchez, Regina Markell, Sympathy and Science: Women Physicians in American Medicine (New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 1985) Moscucci, Ornella, The Science of Woman: Gynecology and Gender in England 1800-1929 (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1990) Tatlock, Lynne, "Speculum Feminarum: Gendered Perspectives on Obstetrics and Gynecology in Early Modern Germany" Signs 17 (1992): 725-56 Wajcman, Judy, Feminism Confronts Technology (University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991)

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Impact of the British Victory in the Indian French War Essay

A war transpired between Britain and France, which lasted from the year 1756 to the year 1763. This war, which was termed as the French and Indian War, was fought over colonial possessions in the North American Continent. It was fought between the American colonists and the British on one side and the French and the American Indians on the other. The incident that initiated this war was the deployment of troops under Washington by the Virginian Governor, to dispute the Ohio valley French expansion (French and Indian War , 2005). This war was part of the larger struggle to attain colonial supremacy and in this struggle between the European colonizers, Britain obtained control of India and several French colonies. In this process Britain obtained Florida from Spain instead of Cuba. This period of strife ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, by Britain, France and Spain. Britain was the major beneficiary and obtained control over Canada, Florida and a number of Caribbean islands (Seven Years’ War , 2005). Initially the war efforts in America were not accorded much significance by the rulers in Britain. However, in 1757, William Pitt or Pitt the Elder, the then secretary of state and virtual prime minister, realized the fact that this skirmish had the capacity to obtain global domination for the British. Accordingly, Britain borrowed heavily and adopted a number of stratagems like paying Prussia to fight on its behalf in Europe and reimbursing the American colonists. In July 1758, the British emerged victorious at Louisbourg, in the month of August in the same year, they captured Fort Frontenac. In September 1759, a great victory was achieved against the French on the Plains of Abraham. The French were soundly and completely routed in Canada with the capture of Montreal by the British in September 1760. Due to the Paris Peace Treaty Britain obtained Canada and Florida and the American colonies became much stronger after this war, due to the removal of their European colonial rivals (SEVEN YEARS’ WAR , 1991). Vast and far reaching changes were wrought by the victory in this war. Some of these were that Britain’s presence in the New World became significantly larger. However, Britain incurred a very heavy monetary debt in achieving this victory. The leaders in England developed deep resentment towards the colonists, because the latter had not provided adequate financial and military help to the former. Consequently, Britain decided to enhance their control over the American colonies and to drastically reduce the extant decentralization. This resulted in severe dissatisfaction on the part of the American colonists towards the British. A major benefit that accrued from this war was that the colonists realized that their real enemy was Britain and not each other. They also realized that if they became one, then they were a truly redoubtable foe to contend with. This confidence coupled with the unjust and repressive policies of the British resulted in the American Revolution. In this manner a war that was fought between Britain and France to curb the latter’s expansionist ambitions led to the obtention of independence of the American Colonies from the British (Mooy, 2003). References French and Indian War . (2005). Retrieved September 5, 2007, from The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia including Atlas: http://www.credoreference. com/entry/6427767 Mooy, A. (2003, June 3). French and Indian Wars. Retrieved September 5, 2007, from From Revolution to Reconstruction : http://www. let. rug. nl/usa/E/7yearswar/fiwxx. htm Seven Years’ War . (2005). Retrieved September 5, 2007, from The Hutchinson Unabridged Encyclopedia including Atlas: http://www. credoreference. com/entry/6465088Seven Years’ War SEVEN YEARS’ WAR . (1991). Retrieved September 5, 2007, from The Reader’s Companion to American History: http://www. credoreference. com/entry/5868885

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Identity of Women in Shelleys Frankenstein, Brontes...

Identity of Women in Shelleys Frankenstein, Brontes Jane Eyre, and Eliots The Mill on the Floss George Eliot is quoted as stating: A womans hopes are woven of sunbeams; a shadow annihilates them (Miner 473). To extend this notion, Jean Giraudoux in Tiger at the Gates, states I have been a woman for fifty years, and Ive never been able to discover precisely what it is I am (474). These two statements are related to each other because they express, in large part, the dilemma facing Mary Shelley, Charlotte Brontà «, and George Eliot as they set out to write fictional manuscripts. Giraudoux may not be able to define female even though she herself is a woman, because a shadow has annihilated the hopes she might have had in†¦show more content†¦He is created by Shelley to bear the weight of her personal feelings of loss in a male world and of being defined by men; thus the monster is defined as a male. His despondency is the result of Shelley realizing the molding of a male culture on her female uniqueness, and in result sees herself not as a unique female individual, but a formed, boxed-in creature; she realizes the monster that I am. Jane, speaking for Charlotte, looks at herself in a mirror, rather than through a screen of definitions men have created in regard to her. She ignores the limiting stories, and sees how cold and dark it is to be true to the female qualities within her body. Being true to the qualities means coldness and darkness; words reminiscent of aloneness, and these are harsher than dealing with viewing herself within the portrait of reality: in a male-dominated society, containing males who create the role she must live. Lastly, Maggie looks at an inverted mirror, described as a square looking-glass [emphasis my own]. The shape of the mirror is important because boxes are also square, and Maggie, like George, feels that she is in a box created for her, with only the dark back of the mirror to view. In the scene, Maggie considers turning the mirror around, but then quickly reconsiders. Perhaps she feels the act will do no good, for light must be present for a mirror

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Plato, Sir Francis Bacon, and Albert Camus What is...

Knowledge, that certain indescribable thing that everyone thinks they have a little bit of, is an elusive concept that nearly every philosopher from ancient Greece to the modern day has given at least a nod to. How, after all, can we know that we are right in something if we dont know what knowing is? This question, and the sometimes futile attempt to answer it, is called epistemology. More specifically, it is the study of how we know and what that knowledge actually is. Is knowledge objective, subjective, something else, or even possible? In ancient Greece, a group of men who came to be known as the Sophists sold their â€Å"knowledge† without ever believing absolute knowledge was possible. According to them, the only things that could†¦show more content†¦This knowledge and development of kings doesnt come easily in Platos world. It is an ordeal, a journey, and a painful path that one must undertake with various points of confusion and many reasons to turn back instead of pushing ahead. That journey itself is, to me, what comes across as the reality of the message behind â€Å"The Allegory† and possibly the reality of reality itself. The journey begins the same for everyone; they live â€Å"in an underground den. . . and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them† (Plato 1). Everything that I experience comes to me only through the senses and my opinions of what those senses are. If I see shadows I give them meaning and call that knowledge, if I hear sounds I give them authors and call that knowledge, and if I speak with m y neighbor and share our knowledge, we become wiser. This form of life might not be perfect, but for many its comfort, its safe, and its all they know. But what if, Plato says, the prisoners are set free? Just like learning something new for the first time, the prisoners would be troubled and pained as they stand and walk for, possibly, the first time ever (Plato 2), but this isShow MoreRelatedhistory of philosophy5031 Words   |  21 Pagesthe study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical context? To what degree can philosophical texts from prior historical eras be understood even today? All cultures — be they  prehistoric,  medieval, or  modern;  Eastern,  Western,  religious  or  secular  Ã¢â‚¬â€ have had their own unique schools

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Three Branches Of Government - 1139 Words

When the founders were creating the Constitution for the new nation they wanted to keep the freedoms of the United States but wanted to have a strong government. They thought the best way to get a strong government but to keep the people’s rights were to create the three branches of government. The three branches of government are Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branch. Legislative makes laws, Executive enforces the laws, and the Judicial branch explains the laws. Know we will key on the Legislative Branch. How did the Legislative Branch come to be? The Legislative Branch was founded on March 4, 1789. We got the idea of the Legislative Branch from British Parliament. It is a bicameral legislature, bicameral means two. The founding†¦show more content†¦In this process a bill is drafted, then it is introduced in the house. The Speaker of the House sends the bill to a committee, the committee decides to make changes to the bill or kill it. If the bill gets sent on, it gets sent to the Senate. In the senate it is sent to another committee and if majority vote for it, the bill will go to the whole Senate. The bill gets debated and amendments add, if needed, and then sent back to the House. Any changes made and House doesn’t agree it goes to a committee to find compromises. After the compromise it goes to the President. If the President vetoes the bill, â…” majority of the House can override the veto. Some of the important people in the legislative branch is the Speaker of the House, President of the Senate, and the Senate Majority. The Speaker is the head of the House, they preside over the Majority Leader. As the Speaker is the highest in the House, they hardly vote or participate in debates. The president of the Senate is the vice president. The vice president presides over the Senate and votes only if there is a tie in the senate. Also, if the president were to die or become unable of being the president, the vice president takes over. Another important member in Congress is the Majority Leader, they are just under the Speaker of the House. The Majority Leader makes sure that no one in a party votes from something the party is against, or doesn’t agree with. These are some of theShow MoreRelatedThree Branches of Government1117 Words   |  5 PagesThree Branches of the Federal Government In May 1787, 55 delegates from 12 states, Rhode Island declined, met in Philadelphia for the Constitutional Convention. The purpose of the convention was to revise the Articles of Confederation, but what occurred was the writing of the U.S. Constitution. George Washington was unanimously elected as President of the Convention. After four months of deliberations Gouveneur Morris submitted the final draft and 39 of the 55 delegate present signed the ConstitutionRead MoreThe Three Branches Of Government1266 Words   |  6 PagesThe Three Branches of Government The government of the United States of America is a federal constitutional republic. In layman s terms, this means that the country s national, central government and the smaller, unitary governments of the fifty states are co-equal in their power, and that the citizens of America have a say in public policies by electing representatives who voice their respective opinions. More importantly, both the central government and the state governments areRead MoreThe Three Branches Of Government725 Words   |  3 PagesBranches of Government The United States Government has three branches, legislative power, executive power, and judicial power. The founders of a division of power did not want all the power to be centralized in a monarch or anyone else, so they divided the legal authority into the three branches. Legislative power creates new laws, the constitution gives this power to congress, which is made up of the senate and the house of representatives. Executive power gives the authority to enforce laws,Read MoreThe Three Branches of Government1260 Words   |  6 PagesThe Three Branches of U.S. Government The leaders at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 desired an unbiased, fair government. They believed they could keep a strong yet non-oppressive government form by creating three divided branches. The branches are the legislative, judicial and executive branches. The legislative branch is led by Congress which is split up into the Senate and the House of Representatives. The judicial branch is fronted by the Supreme Court. The executive branch is headedRead MoreThree branches of government1113 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ ABSTRACT The components of the constitution are the framework for our country, and all function to give our government structure. The judicial, legislative, and executive branches are all key components that make up our government, acting independently from the others, and allowing for checks and balances in order to prevent misuse of power. Federalism affects how our government is run, and especially the criminal justice system. Within our criminal justice system the main components are lawRead MoreThe Three Branches Of Government1248 Words   |  5 PagesThe Three Branches of Government In the beginning the United States was based upon the Articles of Confederation where the national government consisted of only one legislative body. Under the Articles of Confederation the national government had very limited powers and because of that problems began to emerge. States were now conducting their own foreign trade negotiations, printing their own money, and organizing their own armed forces violating the national law. Because of this a groupRead MoreThe Three Branches Of The Government1298 Words   |  6 PagesThe Three Branches of the Government The Government has three branches for law making. When a law is being created, it starts at the Legislative, and then gets passed to the Executive branch, then to the Judicial branch. Each branch has their own area of the law that they look at. In the end, it is decided if the law will be issued to the people. When the law is being created, it starts at the Legislative branch. In the branch, Congress is made up of two houses, the Senate and the House of RepresentativesRead MoreThe Three Branches Of Government Essay1146 Words   |  5 Pages The Three Branches of Government In 1787 the leaders of the united states gathered to write the constitution which they also divided into three branches to ensure a central government in which no group or individual gains too much control. The three branches consists on the following Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. Legislative branch rejects or confirms presidential appointments, and also has the authority to declareRead MoreThe Three Branches Of Federal Government1290 Words   |  6 Pagesordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.† The Constitution is the framework of our government, containing seven articles. The first three describe the three branches of Federal government which are legislative, judicial, and executive. The second three outline the rights and responsibilities of state governments and in relation to the Federal government. Lastly, the seventh article establishes the procedure used by the thir teen states to ratify it. These powerful wordsRead MoreEssay on Three Branches of Government725 Words   |  3 Pages Instructors, training on how to grade is within the Instructor Center. Assignment 1 Branches of Government Create a flowchart of the three branches of government and associate two (2) Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) clauses for each branch of government. Designate the relationships among the governmental branches. In an accompanying document, exemplify the types of powers of each branch of government and include these items: * Taxing and spending powers * Limits on both federal

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Comparison of Epidemiological Study Designs

Question: Discuss about theComparison of Epidemiological Study Designs. Answer: Introduction A study design follows a specific protocol and methodology to reach specific interpretations to confirm hypothetical concepts into operational ones. Study design are framed keeping in mind the specific requirements, limitation and desired outcomes of the study. Several qualifying criteria are assessed before a design is implemented to conduct a study. Epidemiological studies are quantitative studies that identify relations between exposures and outcomes of a particular disease. Achieving this goal with least error is the indicator of an efficient Study Design. Epidemiology is the branch of Medical Science that deals with the study of causes, incidence, distribution and measures to control a disease in a defined population. Three key terms are of utmost relevance in this regard: Exposures, Outcomes and Cofounders (Fletcher et al., 2012). The researcher identifies the exposures and cofounders and analyses the consequent outcomes of a disease, to reach to relevant conclusion, often aime d at proposing a preventive measure. Several classifications of epidemiological studies are possible depending on specific factors. The one most extensively used is based on the role and control of the researcher over the study parameters (Szklo Nieto, 2012). In Observational Studies, the researcher has least control over the study situation; he/she merely studies the trend and etiology of a disease. Experimental studies are designed to apply a certain level of intervention to the affected population and observe the consequent results. This essay aims to compare and evaluate various features of two such epidemiological study designs: one Experimental and one Observational utilised in two different research studies on chronic diseases. Observational epidemiological studies are conducted to determine, if any, the association between adverse health-related issues and certain potential causative factors. It aims to describe the occurrence of a disease by time, place and person. Observational studies have several classifications including Cohort, Case-control, Cross-sectional and Routine Data-based studies (Robertson, 1998). In Cohort studies a cohort or fixed population is selected, which is exposed to a certain factor, and then the whole population is studied. Subjects with and without a specific disease is identified and prior exposure to risk factors are analysed in Case-control studies. In Cross-sectional studies a set of individuals are selected from a predefined population and information is collected at a particular time to assess both exposures and outcomes. In Experimental Epidemiological Studies, the researcher intervenes with the treatment of the disease to study the effect of doing so. Experimental designs include Controlled and Uncontrolled Trials. Controlled Trials consist of a control group, which does not experience any intervention for comparison with the intervention group. Uncontrolled Trials do not have such control groups. The allocation of different study subjects to the control and the intervention group are done by random sampling to avoid any kind of bias on part of the investigator or the researcher. Interventional Studies can be Clinical trials as well as Filed trials. A clinical trial evaluates different treatment methods of a disease or a condition and is generally conducted in a medical set-up. Field trials are conducted in a specific location or community to assess risk factors in reducing the incidence of a disease. Selection of a suitable study design is completely dependent on the discrete objectives and purpose of the study. There are specific advantages and disadvantages associated with the different study designs, which is essential during the selection proce dure. Two studies on chronic diseases that are selected to serve the purpose of this essay are Additive effects of glycaemia and blood pressure exposure on risk of complications in type 2 diabetes: a prospective observational study (UKPDS 75) (Stratton eta al., 2006) and Nutrition intervention is beneficial in oncology outpatients receiving radiotherapy to the gastrointestinal or head and neck are(Isenring, Capra Bauer, 2004). The first of the two chosen studies is an Observational Epidemiological Study conducted on 5,102 subjects in UK who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The authors aim to measure the effects of glycaemia and systolic blood pressure exposure on the incidence of type 2 diabetes complications. Patients in the age group of 25 to 65 years of age who are newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and fasting plasma glucose level of 6.0 mmol/l were selected. Patients with severe vascular disease, a myocardial infarction or stroke or any other major systemic disease were excluded from the study group. The study tries to assess if there is any additive or individual relation between type 2 Diabetes complication and a prior history of hypertension and hyperglycaemia in the selected patient group. The Type 2 diabetes has been an epidemic and controlling the post disease complications has been an absolute necessary presently. Controlling the glycaemic levels of patients by specific interventions has bee n a topic of extensive study in order to manage the complications generally related to the chronic disease. Interventions to control the glucose levels of patients close to nondiabetic levels have shown to have beneficial effects (Nathan et al., 2009). Studies also clearly state the relation between type 2 diabetes complications and hypertension and obesity (Colosia, Palencia Khan, 2013). The study qualifies as a cross sectional study as the authors observes and collects data from a selected group in the population over a particular time period to assess both the exposures and the outcomes of the disease. The authors aimed to find whether the number of patients who eventually developed some kind of type 2 diabetic complication had lower or higher values of blood glucose level and systolic blood pressure. Hence, the selected study design is apt for conducting this study. The study results show independent as well as additive association between hypertension and hyperglycaemia. The a uthors conclude that the incidence of type 2 diabetes related complications could be effectively avoided by controlling the two risk factors viz. hypertension and hyperglycemia. The study results and interpretations have significant clinical implications. The second study chosen is an Experimental Epidemiological Study that aims to evaluate the effect of nutritional interventions in outpatients who are undergoing radiotherapy to their GI tract or neck and head region. The authors aimed at comparing the impact of nutritional intervention on the selected population of patients by comparing the intervention group with a control group, which received usual care. The population of outpatients, which fulfilled the exclusion criteria of at least 20 fractions of radiotherapy, were grouped by random sampling. Hence, the study can be classified as a Controlled Clinical Trial. Different parameters like body weight, body composition, nutritional status, quality of life and physical function were measured for both the groups. Patients undertaking radiotherapy are found to bear various side effects. Radiotherapy on the head and neck region often causes dryness of mouth and consequently may reduce oral intake of food, resulting in loss of body weigh t (Vissink et al., 2003). GI tract radiotherapy may cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea leading to nutritional insufficiency. Although nutritional support has been recommended to reduce physiological side effects of radiotherapy but very few studies addressed the issue. This provides the rationale for conducting the study and utilising the mentioned study design. The study concludes that there was significant improvement in the intervention group in terms of reducing weight loss, deterioration in nutritional status, quality of life and physical function of the concerned patients. The study results are relevant for practical application. Patients undergoing radiotherapy of GI tract and head and neck region, who are at risk of malnutrition, should be provided with sufficient nutritional intervention during as well as post radiotherapy sessions. There are certain advantages and disadvantages of the two kinds of studies that have been employed in the mentioned studies, as in every study designs or models. Cross-sectional observational epidemiological studies are advantageous in a sense that they address both the outcomes and exposures of a disease for long durations of time. It can provide relevant background information about the disease impact on a population or community and formulate health care services accordingly. On the contrary, common disadvantages are that it cannot indicate a cause-effect relationship of a disease and quantify a risk factor. Short duration disease may be overlooked in cross-sectional studies. it is best applied for chronic long duration disease like hypertension, diabetes, cancer and so on and so forth. Experimental Epidemiological studies that include clinical trials provide strong evidence of the effects of interventions on a disease to support an already proposed hypothesis regarding the same issue. Here, the effects of intervention can be precisely measured as the intervention group results are compared to a control group results, outlaying significant difference between the two if any. The investigator has control over the environment of the study as opposed to observational studies. These types of studies can infer about the safety and effectiveness of a treatment or intervention procedure. Randomized sampling of the population while dividing the same into intervention and control groups evades any possibility of bias in the study results and consequently incorrect interpretation. Conversely, large trials may reduce the quality of statistical analysis tools and long-term follow up of the subjects. Possible ethical considerations need to be addressed before conducting clinical trials. In conclusion, the studies chosen to compare the two different study designs successfully meet the objectives and have practical significance. The rationale behind choosing the particular study designs was sound and effective in reaching their goals. References Borrell, C., Rodrguez, M., Ferrando, J., Brugal, M. T., Pasarn, M. I., Martnez, V., Plasncia, A. (2002). Role of individual and contextual effects in injury mortality: new evidence from small area analysis. Injury prevention, 8(4), 297-302. Colosia, A. D., Palencia, R., Khan, S. (2013). Prevalence of hypertension and obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in observational studies: a systematic literature review. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes, 6(1), 327-38. Fletcher, R. H., Fletcher, S. W., Fletcher, G. S. (2012).Clinical epidemiology: the essentials. Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Isenring, E. A., Capra, S., Bauer, J. D. (2004). Nutrition intervention is beneficial in oncology outpatients receiving radiotherapy to the gastrointestinal or head and neck area. British journal of cancer, 91(3), 447-452. Lindstrm, J., Louheranta, A., Mannelin, M., Rastas, M., Salminen, V., Eriksson, J., ... Tuomilehto, J. (2003). The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) Lifestyle intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diab Nathan, D. M., Buse, J. B., Davidson, M. B., Ferrannini, E., Holman, R. R., Sherwin, R., Zinman, B. (2009). Medical management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy a consensus statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes care, 32(1), 193-203. Robertson, I. (1998, July). Epidemiological study designs'. In Epidemiology workshop for equine research workers (pp. 11-22). Stratton, I. M., Cull, C. A., Adler, A. I., Matthews, D. R., Neil, H. A. W., Holman, R. R. (2006). Additive effects of glycaemia and blood pressure exposure on risk of complications in type 2 diabetes: a prospective observational study (UKPDS 75). Diabetologia, 49(8), 1761-1769. Szklo, M., Nieto, J. (2012).Epidemiology. Jones Bartlett Publishers Vissink, A., Jansma, J., Spijkervet, F. K. L., Burlage, F. R., Coppes, R. P. (2003). Oral sequelae of head and neck radiotherapy. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology Medicine, 14(3), 199-212.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Two Voices Of The Seafarer Essay Example For Students

The Two Voices Of The Seafarer Essay The Two Voices of The SeafarerThere is much argument in the literary field as to whether there is more than one speaker in the Old English poem The Seafarer. In this brief essay we will look at some of the previous criticisms of the last two centuries, and through them attempt to prove that the speaker of the poem is the same one throughout. The author of The Seafarer is unknown. Its manuscript is untitled and unique, and is thought to have been inscribed around 975 AD. It survives on four pages of the Exeter Anthology which was given to the Exeter Cathedral in England, by the Archbishop Leofric, who died in 1072 AD. The Seafarer is a poem about an Anglo-Saxon man who, having apparently been banished from his home, has taken to the sea. John Pope, one of the foremost critics of the poem, postulated, and it is now generally accepted, that it is composed of three parts. Part A1, covering lines 1 through 33a, is believed to be the story of an inexperienced young sailor who tells of his hardships at sea. Part A2, lines 33b to 64a or 66a, and part B, 64b or 66b through 124, is told by an eager young sailor who loves the sea. An epilogue is usually believed to be contained in lines 103 through 124 (Pope, 177). Jove Pope’s greatest critical adversary, Stanley Greenfield, believed that A1 is details a voyage the speaker w as forced to undergo, and that the purpose of A2 is to emphasize the speakers choice to undertake a current journey (Greenfield, 107). The poem begins by telling us of how the young seafarer has â€Å"often suffered times of hardship / and have experienced / bitter anxiety.† He is journeying into a world of loneliness and a destiny away from his comitatus, his meadhall, and his lord. At times he despises his life at sea: â€Å"Oppressed by cold my feet were bound by frost / In icy bonds, while worries simmered hot / About my heart, and hunger from within / Tore the sea-weary spirit† (The Seafarer, Line 8). At others, he celebrates it: â€Å"Even now my heart / Journeys beyond its confines, and my thoughts / Over the sea, across the whales domain, / Travel afar the regions of the earth, / And then come back to me with greed and longing. / The cuckoo cries, incites the eager breast / On to the whale’s roads irresistibly, / Over the wide expanses of the sea,† (The Seafarer, Line 58). In Anglo-Saxon society a warrior believed in lof: he received glory by his valor in battle; his accomplishments in life. If his deeds were sufficiently notable his name would live on long after he died, granting him immortality. The Seafarer believes that â€Å"Sickness, old age, the sword, each one of these/ May end the lives of doomed and transient men. / Therefore for every warrior the best / Memorial is the praise of living men † (The Seafarer, Line 68). Halfway through the poem we see a drastic turn. Part A has mentioned almost nothing spiritual, only speaking of the hard life of a man who lives at sea. In the beginning of part B, in line 64b, however, he changes his thus far Anglo-Saxon tone to that of a pious Christian: â€Å"Because the joys of God mean more to me / Than this dead transitory life on land.†The conversion of Anglo-Saxon England was relatively quick. It went from a culture which had a comitatus conscience to one that was dominated by an individual, Christian conscience. Even during his musings on God, the speaker still laments â€Å"The singing gull instead of mead in hall† (The Seafarer, 23), the loss of â€Å"dear friends,† (The Seafarer, 15), and the lord he once had. At times it seems like the poet is attempting to reconcile the tensions between the two different cultures. .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 , .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 .postImageUrl , .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 , .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488:hover , .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488:visited , .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488:active { border:0!important; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488:active , .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488 .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uec0d70cb448585fa1f969795fef4e488:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: History 111- Causes Of The Civil War Essay We will write a custom essay on The Two Voices Of The Seafarer specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now In one of the first know criticisms of the poem, Max Rieger in 1869 postulated that the poem is of one writer and speaks of a dialogue between two individuals; an eager young sailor and an older more cautious one (Rieger, 313). He believed that the poem is an example of the collision of Christianity with the Anglo-Saxon folktale tradition. Friedrich Kluge later speculated that the poem is actually two speeches, and that the entirety of part B, having apparently no correlation to the first, was the later addition of a â€Å"mediocre homilist† (Kluge, 322). C. C. Ferrell, in agreement with Kluge, believed that the poem was essentially pagan in sentiment, but since Christian monks were usually the transcribers of these early poems, he believed that the Christian scribe who copied it down made additions. The most notable of which is the homiletic ending (Ferrell, 402). The first to attack the theory of multiple voices was William Lawrence in 1902. Lawrence believed that the poem i s completely of one speaker. In his very influential article he examines the monologue theory which would prevail to the present day. Lawrence considers the poem the lyric utterance of one man (Lawrence, 462). Earlier critics, Lawrence claims, had divided the poem because of the interpretation of the word for?on (The Seafarer, 33b) which connects the speakers description of his suffering at sea and his desire to return to his seafaring. The word for?on had previously been translated as because, which suggests that the seafarer wishes to return to the sea because of his suffering there. From this apparent contradiction, the earlier critics had concluded that these were two different poems. Lawrence argues that for?on does not necessarily need to be interpreted as because, and suggests that the seafarer’s past suffering does not necessarily contradict his present longing. Another interesting theory comes from Gustav Ehrismann in 1909. Ehrissmann postulates, in agreement with Lawrence , that there is only one speaker, but that lines 1 through 64a are meant to be read as an allegory. He believed that the seafarer’s journey is symbolic of man’s state of â€Å"exile† due to Original Sin (Ehrissman, 213). O. S. Anderson later agreed with Ehrissmann`s theory on the allegorical nature of lines 1 through 64a, but that the rest of the poem had been a later addition (Anderson, 17). In 1950 Dorothy Whitelock greatly affected the literary criticism movement of The Seafarer. Whitelock volunteered the â€Å"Peregrinus Theory.† This theory utilizes the fact that â€Å"wandering ascetics† were common in Anglo-Saxon England at the time of the poem. Using this reasoning, she explains that The Seafarer is actually a unified monologue of one man (Whitelock, 261). She believes that the man in the poem has voluntarily abandoned society for the love of God, and is preaching the love of God over the love of society. I. L. Gordon later denounced Whitelock?s theory on the basis that the tone of the poem is â€Å"cold and desperate† compared with the â€Å"warmth† of other works that deal with the asceticism of the time (Gordon, 1). We believe that the speaker is meant to represent one speaker partially because of its subtle movement from part A to part B. There is a gradual transformation on the part of the speaker from a godless, embittered young seafarer, to a more experienced seafarer with a strong faith in God. The major difficulty in proving that there is only one speaker occurs between the descriptive first 64 lines, and the homiletic conclusion (Campbell, 235). A. P. Campbell attributed this to the theory of Anglo-Saxon â€Å"wanderlust.† He claims that the first 33 lines describe the seafarers suffering at the sea, as contrasted with the comfortable life of the townsman. There is a sense of mystery about his choice to roam the seas. He says the word â€Å"cunnian† (The Seafarer, 35b) contains a sense of exploring or trying out, which does not coincide with a penitential journey, but reflects the speakers excitement for travel. It exemplifies the Anglo-Saxon fascination with strange lands. Lines 39 through 49, that many previous critics had argued were pessimistic, he says, can be attributed to the hardship that everyone at the time would have had to suffer while at sea. Campbell argues that the reference to the cuckoo, a migratory bird, and its mournful call (The Seafarer, 53a), along with the coming of spring, emphasizes the speakers growing wanderlust. Using this line of thought, the controversial lines 55 through 64 can be thought to merely depict the speakers imaginative journey of the lands he will one day travel to. His wanderlust causes the speaker obvious discomfort, which leads him to the conclusion that he would rather have the joys of God mean more to me / than this dead transitory life (The Seafarer, 64). At this point the speaker realizes that the basis of his wanderlust is the desire to find his home in heaven. .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f , .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f .postImageUrl , .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f , .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f:hover , .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f:visited , .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f:active { border:0!important; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f:active , .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u4b2ce13da241175c5985bc034b735c2f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Autism and the family EssayThe Seafarer is one of the most written about poems in the English language. As we have seen there are many arguments for the case of one speaker, and many against it. This point will almost certainly never be agreed upon, but we believe that the speaker is the same one throughout. English Essays